I did some research on encoding and decoding algorithms. There are two that generally yield interesting results, u-Law (or “mu”-law) and A-law.
Information regarding how each of these methods work is can be found here and here. The idea is that some encoding methods allow for larger dynamic ranges than others and thus yield different results.
The original image, a simple red square, shown below, was used in testing and the resulting signification is below. As you can see in the included wave form and hear, the audio encoded with A-Law has a larger range in terms of amplitude, which makes sense as the dynamic range of this algorithm is greater than that of U-Law.